Glowing plants will illuminate the streets

On the streets of our cities we are accustomed to seeing many plants that perform, as a rule, purely decorative function. But what if all this flora could be given additional functions? Say, in the daytime plants produce oxygen, and at night – light the streets? It sounds fantastic, but in fact it can soon become a reality.

In fact, such an idea is not meaningless for economic reasons, because according to various studies, 10 to 20% of everything is spent on street lighting at night produced electricity. According to the publication Science Daily, scientists have come close to creating bioluminescent plants. And such a venture may not be as impossible as it seems at first glance.

Many living organisms have the ability to glow in the dark. Moreover, before scientists could already "activate" the necessary genes in plants. For example, it was possible to achieve luminescence of tobacco leaves, using genetic engineering. But scientists from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology decided to use nanotechnology. They created silicon and polymer nanoparticles, which are able to move inside the leaves and stems of plants in a certain direction, thereby "highlighting" light. Each of the particles contains one of three substances: luciferin (which emits light), luciferase (an enzyme that causes luciferin to glow) and coenzyme A (it increases the activity of luciferase). All three nanoparticles under pressure in an aqueous medium are placed in the stomata of plants.

As a result, scientists managed to achieve the glow of the leaves of the plant, which was 100,000 times greater than that of a genetically modified colleague. The most interesting is that the glow can easily be "disconnected" by adding a compound that blocks any of the three above substances. At the moment, the maximum period of luminescence of plants is four hours, but scientists are planning to increase this figure.

CERN again "groped" for new physics

From the middle to the end of the twentieth century, quantum physicists disassembled in a single piece the unified theory of physics proposed by Einstein's general theory of relativity. The physics of the large is subject to gravity, but only quantum physics could describe the observations of the small. Since then, the theoretical tug of war between gravity and three other fundamental interactions has continued, while physicists are trying to expand gravity or quantum physics so that one can absorb the other. The latest measurements from the Large Hadron Collider show a discrepancy between the Standard Model predictions, which may hint at completely new spheres of the Universe underlying the described by quantum physics. Although confirmation of these anomalies requires repeated testing, confirmation will mean a turning point in our most fundamental description of particle physics to date.

Quantum physicists have discovered that mesons do not decay into kaons and muons as often as required by the Standard Model. They believe that increasing the power of the Large Hadron Collider will reveal a particle of a new type responsible for this discrepancy. Although the discrepancy can cause errors in data or theory, in this case, instead of the new particle, the improved LHC will be a boon to several projects on the forefront of physics.

Standard Model

The standard model is a well-tested fundamental theory of quantum physics that describes three of the four fundamental interactions that are believed to govern our physical reality. Quantum particles are of two basic types: quarks and leptons. Quarks are bound together in various combinations, forming particles like a proton and a neutron. Protons, neutrons and electrons are known to collect into atoms.

The "lepton family" has heavier versions of an electron – like a muon – and quarks can merge into hundreds of other composite particles. Two of them, the lowest and K-mesons, were implicated in this quantum detective, which scientists drew attention to. The B meson decays into a K meson, accompanied by a muon (mu-) and an anti-muon (mu +).

Anomaly

Scientists have detected a probability of 2.5 sigma, or 1 to 80 of that in the absence of unexpected effects , that is, new physics, a more deviant distribution than observed would be produced in about 1.25% of cases, says Professor Spencer Klein, a senior fellow at the National Laboratory of Lawrence Berkeley. Klein did not participate in the study.

Simply put, the frequency of decay of mesons into strange quarks in the process of proton collisions at the LHC is lower than expected. "The catch is that with 2.5 sigma, or the data is a bit wrong, either the theory is a little wrong, or there is a hint of something outside the Standard Model," says Klein. "I would put something on one of the first two."

According to Klein, this deviation is inevitable, given the large amount of data that computers operate in operations with the LHC. "With petabyte data sets from the LHC and modern computers, we can produce a huge number of computations of different values," says Klein. "The LHC has issued hundreds of results. Statistically, some of them may exhibit fluctuations of 2.5 sigma. " Particle physicists usually wait for a fluctuation of 5 sigma before hitting the bell.

These recent abnormal observations were also not taken from the ceiling. "It's interesting how these observations correlate with other anomalous measurements of B-meson processes done in recent years," says Dr. Tevong Yu, co-author of the study and associate researcher at the University of Cambridge. "These independent measurements were less pure, but more significant. In sum, the chance that all these different measurements deviate from the Standard Model is close to 1 by 16,000, or 4 sigma, "he says.

Extension of the Standard Model

Excluding statistical or theoretical errors, Tevong suspects that the anomalies mask the presence of completely new particles, leptoquarks or new gauge bosons. Inside the lower mesons, the quantum excitations of new particles can interfere with the normal decay frequency. In their study, the scientists concluded that the updated LHC can confirm the existence of new particles and make a powerful upgrade to the Standard Model in the process.

"This would be revolutionary for our fundamental understanding of the universe," Tevong says. "For particle physics, this will mean that we raise one more layer of Nature and continue the journey to the most basic building blocks. This will be important for cosmology, because it relies on our fundamental theory of understanding the early universe. The interaction between cosmology and particle physics has been very fruitful in the past. As for dark matter, if it arises from the same new physical sector in which the leptokvark is embedded, we could also find its trace. "

Knowledge is Power

So far, scientists from the LHC have observed only ghosts and anomalies, hinting at particles existing at high energy levels. To prove their existence, physicists "need to confirm the indirect signs, and for this it is necessary to wait until the LHCb experiment collects more data on the decays of B to make more accurate measurements," Tevong said. "We will also receive independent confirmation from another experiment, Belle II, which will make itself felt in the next few years. After all this, if the measurement of the decays of B still disagrees with the Standard Model predictions, we will be sure that something outside the Standard Model plays here. "

To establish the existence of new particles, physicists must produce them in the same way as the lower mesons or Higgs bosons, and observe their decay. The fact that they did not see such exotic particles on the LHC (for the time being) means that they can be too heavy and they need more energy to produce them.

Quantum jump for the LHC

The search for new particles at the LHC does not depend on expectation. The probability of observing new phenomena is directly proportional to the number of particles dying in the collisions. "The more particles appear, the higher the chances that we will notice the right thing against the background of many other events in these clashes," Tevong explains. Search for new particles, he likens finding a needle in a haystack; it is easier to find a needle in a haystack that is stuffed with needles.

If the anomalies are confirmed, the Standard model will have to change. At the same time, the scale of energy will also increase, which will be guided by the next generation of colliders. Maybe we'll get to the dark matter too. And there, you see, we will unite all these interactions between various anomalies into a single and elegant theory.

10 secrets of science that will make you immortal already in this century

Every day science brings humanity closer to an old dream: immortality. The path to immortality is thorny and difficult, but the ultimate goal justifies any means (although this can be argued). It is very likely that those born in this century will no longer have to die. Looking at the achievements of biologists, neuroscientists, engineers and pharmacists in the context of prolonging life, one wants only one thing: to delay the critical moment as far as possible in order to overcome the threshold of endless renewal. Yes, a person is "suddenly mortal," as one of the main characters of the classic of literature has said, but examples of people living up to a hundred and more give hope that an old woman with a scythe can be deceived. The good news is that if you stand on the road to fighting the inevitable end, you do not have to lose anything. Death is the ultimate end to any struggle, so the fight against death seems self-evident.

Man is a complex set of dynamic factors, consisting of billions of cells, bone and muscle tissue, heart and kidneys, neurons and memories. Recreating a person other than the natural way seems impossible in the foreseeable future. However, with the development of computer technology and the emergence of artificial intelligence, it becomes obvious that we could simulate many of the tools of nature, if not repeat it. A person can be a complex set of individual parameters, the sum of all parts, but on closer examination all these parts obey the usual and universal laws. Does this mean that we will be able to deceive death if we study these laws well? Let's see.

Cultivation of organs

The physical health of a person is based on many factors, which, as a rule, reduce to the absence of infectious, viral, hereditary and acquired diseases and the integrity of the organism.

On the existence of bacteria, people could only guess the beginning of the last century. Think about it: microbiology as a separate science did not exist yet some hundred and fifty years ago, when your great-great-grandmother was alive. It is enough to look at modern medicine in order to understand what a huge leap in improving the quality of life for people gave the appearance of microscopes and microbiology as such. Now we can treat infectious diseases, and very successfully. And despite the worsening of the problem in the form of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, we are sure that we will find a way to cope with the diseases.

But what about the organs? A broken arm can not be cured with pills, and a heart that needs a transplant can not be saved by a stab. Even worse is the case with the bodies lost as a result of amputation or tragic events. You can not just take and transplant your leg, hoping that the body will restore all the nerve connections and learn how to manipulate a new limb. Queues for transplantation of internal organs grow every year. What if you, on your way to immortality, suddenly lose a pair of legs or hands? Life will lose its former meaning.

Fortunately, active work is being done in this direction. Scientists offer a solution in the form of organs grown on another carrier. Pluripotent stem cells, which are present in humans in the infant state, have an amazing power: they can differentiate into any type of tissue, except for the extra-embryonic (placenta and yolk sac). Taking adult cells, turning them into pluripotent and multiplying, scientists could get an unlimited amount of raw materials for creating and recreating a person's native organ. It remains only to find stem cells, but more on this below, and create a "farm" for cultivation.

In 2016, Canadian biophysicist Andrew Pelling and his team from the University of Ottawa successfully cultivated human tissues using … apples. Using the method of decellularization, they removed the cells of the apple and stayed with the cellular "forests", practically drying the apple, saving it from "meat". Then a piece of an ear was cut from an apple and filled with human cells. So the auricle appeared. Pelling argues that his method will quickly and cheaply create scarce implants to restore human organs.

Stem cells

Stem cells are undetected cells that can transform into other cells – the heart, neurons, liver, lungs, skin. They can share and grow. In childhood or youth of a person, these stem cells act as built-in repairers. They heal and restore the normal functions of damaged organs.

As stem cells grow older, stem cells are reduced by 100 or even 10 000 times, in different tissues and organs. In addition, they experience genetic mutations that reduce their quality and effectiveness in repairing the body. Agree, it would be great to stop the degeneration of stem cells and maintain their reserves for unlimited time.

At the beginning of the article, we started talking about the fact that "those born in this century will not have to die." You see, at the moment of birth, the human body is in a state of biological perfection, says doctor Bob Hariri. The organs have not yet been exposed to a heap of harmful stimuli like electromagnetic radiation, chemicals, the biological code is not spoiled. At the time of birth, it would be possible to take the stem cells from the baby with the original DNA that has not yet been spoiled, multiply in large numbers for the future and freeze. Take a note for your child that when the cans of stem cells appear (and they already appear), one could provide it with an endless regeneration for many years. It will be some twenty years, and stem cells will change medicine, which means that the life of a person forever.

Cancellation of old age

Speaking of immortality, interested people talk about a physiologically healthy and quality eternal life. Nobody wants to spend eternity in the body of a frail old man – tired people are often asked to turn them off from the life support device or give euthanasia. A person deserves eternal life in a young and full body. The antipode of youth is old age, that's who our main enemy is.

Like a car, a person's body begins to grow old with time, problems grow – the cells grow old, the body's defenses are exhausted, harmful waste accumulates, muscles weaken, and so on. The only difference is that the human body is much more enduring than a car and much more efficient.

Sensitive cells – aging cells that can no longer be divided by creating new cells – can be removed. Experiments on mice injected with Foxo4-DRI showed that mice live longer by 30%. Scientists are targeting aging cells, because they see in them the root of all senile troubles, from fragility of the body and weakened immunity to the appearance of age-related diseases. At the moment, tools for influencing aging cells and rejuvenating the body are actively being developed. For example, a compound based on resveratrol, which is contained in small amounts in red wine and berries, was able to rejuvenate cells, restoring RNA splicing, which renews the senescent cells. Cell aging also manifests itself in the shortening of telomeres-DNA at the ends of chromosomes. Some RNA splicing factors, which decrease with age, can restore telomeres, and together with the restoration of telomeres, the aging of the cell also stops. Is it worth it then to drink red wine in large quantities? No, of course: there is very little resveratrol in it. But since an effective mix already shows its results (though on animals), and possible connections of a thousand, it promises us a truly healthy immortality. Can someone doubt that in 20-30-40 or even 50 years, scientists will not find an effective cure for old age? Well, fifty years ago people did not fly into space.

Now one thing is clear: different drugs are tested on laboratory mumps, and before clinical trials in humans it is still far away, but the number of ways to save is growing year by year, and interdisciplinary cooperation demonstrates striking effect. And we have not yet departed from biology.

A strict diet

Recently, more and more validated data have been received that the extreme diet and starvation, as well as a lifelong restriction of calories consumed by 30%, can be an amazing remedy for old age. The idea that the organism lives longer, when it starves more and eats less, goes to the roots in the distant past. But in fact, the rejection of 25-50% of daily calories consumed causes anger and denial in people. Why do you need eternal life if you can not enjoy your favorite meatballs with pjureshka and hamburgers?

However, a group of scientists led by gerontologist Walter Longo from the University of Southern California came to the conclusion that you can come to the effects of rejuvenation without subscribing to a lifelong hunger strike. "Diet simulating fasting" for five days a month for three months, repeated as necessary, will be "safe, appropriate and effective to reduce risk factors for aging and the appearance of age-related diseases." It turns out that periodic abstinence from food promises an optimal increase in healthy years of life.

It is important to understand that these conclusions are preliminary and not 100% proven. Like the possibility of immortality as such. But we have already come to the conclusion that in the fight against death, any methods can be good. And the aspirant to immortality will now use all possible ways to reach the critical moment beyond which he will not have to die any more.

Theories about the saving diet are based on the idea that the regenerative effects of the body are caused not so much by the restriction of calories as by the subsequent restoration. In contrast, a long-term and continuous restriction can lead to negative consequences such as anorexia. Periodic fasting – five days a month – reduces body weight, improves glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol, along with other factors that persisted for three months even after returning to a full-fledged diet, studies have shown.

Gene therapy

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45-year-old American Elizabeth Parrish, in pursuit of youth, voluntarily decided to test the method of rejuvenation developed by her own research company BioViva with the help of gene therapy. She has undergone two courses of gene therapy since September 2015. One course was designed to prevent loss of muscle mass, and the second – to increase the level of production of telomerase. Telomerase is an enzyme that adds repeating sequences to the end of the DNA chain in telomere regions that we have already talked about.

Obviously, Elizabeth would not have applied therapy that had not previously been tested in animals. She risked her own health for rejuvenation, risking therapy without the permission of the state regulator.

According to Elizabeth, she not only managed to stop telomere shortening (measured in 2015 and 2016), but also to become younger by 20 years.

In parallel, the FDA approved the use of gene therapy for patients aged 3 to 25 years with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. As reported by the journal ScienceTranslationalMedicine, thanks to gene therapy, a group of doctors managed to cure a 58-year-old patient from an incurable form of lymphoblastic leukemia in just 8 days. Although it is too early to talk about any scientific breakthroughs, gene therapy can become a routine procedure for traditional medicine.

However, the lack of proven results and the approval of state agencies does not stop clandestine groups of gene engineers from experimenting with themselves. In the struggle, all means are good.

CRISPR

The method of editing genes based on CRISPR has for several years not gone from the main pages of medical publications. An easy-to-use tool that "cuts and pasts" genes promises a whole bunch of incredible breakthroughs in all areas: cancer treatment, HIV treatment, fighting poverty, treating hereditary diseases, treating neurodegenerative diseases, improving human qualities, creating designer babies … list giant.

Most recently, doctors from Oakland, USA, for the first time tested the technique of editing the genome on a living person. It took such a risky step to go because the patient suffered from an incurable genetic disease, Hunter's syndrome. It is too early to speak about the results, but the scientists are sure of the future success. Another important thing is that the experimental method is tested on seriously ill people, and therefore development is underway.

It will not come as a surprise to me if in 5-10 years the field of medicine is overwhelmed by a whole stream of genome editing tools and their applications. People vying to rush to create designer babies, removing them unwanted genes, hereditary diseases, changing the color of eyes and hair. Anyone wants his child to be born healthy and happy. There is a high chance that the designer babies born in this century will be deprived of many negative factors manifested in old age, which means that their life will be long and healthy.

And more importantly, reaching the stage of 120 and more years of healthy life will mean the opportunity to touch to new life extension tools. The process of renewal of the body and its recovery will become avalanche-like, and it may not be necessary to die any more. It is only necessary to overcome the barrier.

Bionic extremities

It's no secret that the human body is imperfect. It is a masterpiece as a creation of nature, amazing by its complexity and versatility. But the more complex the system, the more opportunities it has for failure. From this point of view, our technical adaptations are much simpler than natural creations.

It's no secret that the human body is weak and frail, frail and devoid of many amazing adaptations, such as wings. When a person wanted to fly, he created the plane. When a person wants to become taller, stronger, faster, he will create a cyborg.

With the development of science and technology, people were asked the question: why burden yourself with a meat bag, restore an organic limb when you can try to create a bionic, much more adapted, multifunctional and, in principle, no worse than the original. Already, bionic prostheses are being produced for children and adults who can control the power of thought.

For example, LUKEArm is a high-tech prosthesis that allows its owner to feel. A special motor provides feedback, simulating the resistance that various physical objects exert – the user can feel that the cushion has less resistance than the brick. Now the device is quite expensive – $ 100,000 – but prices are falling and will continue to fall.

The mind-controlled leg was first used by Zack Vauter in 2012, a software engineer from Seattle who was amputated above his knee. Special prostheses allow athletes to run for short and long distances, and there is an opinion that they receive an advantage over this compared with conventional runners.

As prosthetics develops, prostheses are becoming more technologically and technologically advanced. The combination of technology and organic allows you to create hands that can touch and grasp, but will be stronger than their organic counterparts. What would you choose: an ordinary hand or a normal-looking arm with increased strength?

Nanodutor

Different systems constantly operate in the human body, but we do not notice it. The intestinal microflora helps to process food. The heart pumps blood, the lungs supply it with oxygen. Immune systems are struggling with adverse incursions. The cells divide and age, the hair grows, the brain consolidates the information in a dream … And as we said, even though the human body is a highly complex and durable organism, over time, its abilities to recover come to naught and even start to work to harm.

But that if we, using the capabilities of science and technology, let in ourselves another system, large and inconspicuous, which would update the body, support it in a working condition, protect it from invading harmful microbes and update it? That is, in fact, would help all the functions of the body to perform their tasks and even more.

Currently, nanorobots are developed primarily for targeted cancer treatment. Tiny, specially designed bodies inserted into the desired area could release the medicine, killing cancer cells and leaving the unharmed healthy. Сами нанороботы настолько малы, что даже «шеренга» из 50 тысяч экземпляров в толщину будет едва ли больше человеческого волоса.

Также ученые пытаются уменьшить лучшие механизмы современных технологий, чтобы снабдить нанороботов ими: здесь и мельчайшие двигатели, и 3D-принтеры из ДНК, и наноплавники, и наноракеты, и даже беспроводные технологии. Однажды в вашем теле будет работать целая армия из миллионов крошечных помощников. Именно они, незаметно слившись с вашим телом, сделают его бессмертным.

Загрузка сознания

Когда в компьютере сгорает видеокарта, ломается блок питания или накрывается материнская плата, в конечном итоге можно просто вынуть накопитель с памятью и поставить на другую машину. С недавних пор важные данные стали хранить в облаке. Но что делать человеку, если он не машина (пока)? Можно ли спасти человеческое «я», когда умирает тело, перенести разум и душу в другое тело, вместе с сознанием, воспоминаниями и знаниями? Вопрос «взлома» человеческого мозга вполне может стать самым большим и важным в этом и других столетиях. Потому что он напрямую связан с бессмертием — цифровым, если угодно.

Представьте, что вместо долгих лет жизни в одном теле человек мог бы реинкарнировать в другом теле. Сейчас область исследований мозга находится в крайне сложном положении, потому что пытаться его взломать, по мнению этиков, просто кощунственно, а открытые испытания с возможным летальным исходом никто никогда не одобрит.

Впрочем, некоторые считают это неизбежным. Илон Маск в начале года заявил о создании компании Neuralink, которая будет работать в направлении слияния мозга человека с искусственным интеллектом и многократного его усиления. Сам Маск видит в этом пути неизбежную необходимость на фоне растущего информационного общества. Другой предприниматель, Брайан Джонсон, создал компанию Kernel, которая подбирает «шифр» к сигналам человеческого мозга, чтобы можно было манипулировать нейронами, бороться с нейродегенеративными заболеваниями и восстанавливать воспоминания.

Однажды «сохранение» человеческой личности в облаке вполне может стать возможным. Вопрос лишь в том, когда и как до этого дожить.

Глубокий анабиоз

Когда все средства уже перепробованы, а смерть неизбежна, можно пойти на крайние меры. Состояние глубокого анабиоза и в науке, и в фантастике часто рассматривалось как средство отдаления неизбежного. В чем смысл? Медицина постоянно развивается, и уже завтра могут появиться методы лечения неизлечимых болезней, которых не было раньше. Но если завтра человек уже не проснется, вряд ли ему можно будет помочь. Если же погрузить тело в состояние глубокого криосна, заморозить его до лучших времен, можно дать надежду на то, что люди будущего найдут лекарство и «воскресят» спящего.

Холод — один из лучших способов сохранить органические ткани. Некоторые организмы, от микробов до лягушек, могут просыпаться и дальше заниматься своими делами после длительного пребывания в чрезвычайно холодной среде. Эта идея показалась достаточно убедительной создателям Alcor Life Extension Foundation, которая предлагает криогенные услуги. За 770 долларов в год вы сможете подписать договор, по которому ваше тело будет покоиться в гробу с жидким азотом (если вы, конечно, сможете заплатить еще 80 000 долларов за сохранение мозга или 200 000 долларов за все тело после смерти).

Сразу после того, как сердце пациента останавливается, его перевозят в ледяную кровать, а кровообращение и дыхание искусственно возобновляются с помощью аппарата. Затем пациент получает коктейль лекарств внутривенно, включая антикоагулянты и буферы pH. После этого кровь откачивают и заменяют раствором для сохранения органов.

Нет никаких гарантий, что это сработает. Но и смерть ничего не гарантирует. В конце концов, каждый сам может выбрать, как умереть. Но кто-то выберет не умирать никогда.

Russian scientists have developed eco-fuel from waste

Russian scientists have developed eco-fuel from waste </span></a><br /> <meta itemprop="position" content="3"/></li> </ol> <div class="text"> <div itemscope="" itemtype="https://schema.org/Article"><span itemprop="articleBody"></p> <div itemscope="" itemtype="http://schema.org/ImageObject"> <p align="center"></p> <p> The high content of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, according to scientists, is the main cause of the greenhouse effect, and particles of ash can contain heavy metals, toxins and carcinogenic trace elements. Therefore, the issue of waste disposal is particularly acute. And scientists from the National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University (TPU) have significantly succeeded in this. They proposed the use of production waste to create new fuels. </p> <p> The new development allows to receive fuel several dozen times more environmentally friendly than the primary one and solves two problems at once: it reduces the amount of harmful substances emissions into the atmosphere and utilizes industrial waste. </p> <blockquote> <p> "Thermal power plants account for up to 45% of the electricity produced in the world. They are sources of particles of ash and water vapor, as well as oxides of sulfur, nitrogen and carbon, which account for 90-95% of all air emissions. The most dangerous are considered to be emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides into the atmosphere. Combined with atmospheric moisture, they oxidize and form solutions of sulfuric and nitrous acids, which are the cause of acid rain. And increasing the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere destroys the ozone layer that protects the Earth from ultraviolet cosmic radiation, "said Pavel Strizhak, one of the authors of the development, head of the TPU automation department. </p> </blockquote> <p> Experts from TPU during the experiments developed organo-angular fuel compositions (OVUT ). They are liquid composite substances, about 80% of which are products of coal processing. As components of WCRR, 4 groups of substances are used: solid combustible components from among low-grade coals and coal-washing waste, liquid combustible components, water, and also a plasticizer. Each component alone is not suitable as a fuel for "big" energy. But together they make up a fuel similar to traditional coal in terms of energy characteristics. </p> <blockquote> <p> "The results we have obtained open up prospects for the widespread use of WRMT as a cheap, energy-efficient and environmentally beneficial fuel compared to coals. Using liquid fuel from coal processing products, producers will reduce the volume of mining and the pace of development of new deposits. This will save resources and reduce the harm caused to the environment. "</p> </blockquote> <p> <em> Based on the materials of RIA Novosti </em></p> </div> <p></span></p> <div style="display: none"> <span itemprop="name"> Russian scientists have developed eco-fuel from wastes </span><br /> <span itemprop="author"> Vladimir Kuznetsov </span><br /> <meta itemscope="" itemprop="mainEntityOfPage" itemtype="https://schema.org/WebPage" itemid="https://hi-news.ru/science/rossijskie-uchenye-razrabotali-ekotoplivo-iz-otxodov.html"/><meta itemprop="headline" content="Российские ученые разработали экотопливо из отходов"/><meta itemprop="datePublished" content="2017-11-23 16:07:52"/><meta itemprop="dateModified" content="2017-11-23 16:08:17"/></p></div> </p></div> </div> <div id="app-post"> <div class="wrapper" style="position: relative"> <h4> Appendix <br /> Hi-News. en </h4> <p> High-tech news in the iOS and Android application. </p> <p> <a class="gp" href="https://bit.ly/hn_a_banner" target="_blank"/><br /> <a class="as" href="https://bit.ly/hn_banner_ios" target="_blank"/> </div> </p></div> <div class="popular"> <h3 class="related_post_title"> Higher intelligence recommends: </h3> </p></div> <p><!-- You can start editing here. --></p></div> <p><!-- #content --> </div> <p><!-- #primary --></p> </div> <p><!-- #main --></p> </div> <p><!-- #page --></p> <link rel="stylesheet" id="ioimedia_app_banner-css" href="https://hi-news.ru/wp-content/plugins/ioimedia-app-banner/ioimedia_app_banner.css?ver=4.8.3" type="text/css" media="all"/><link rel="stylesheet" id="i10cross-css" href="https://hi-news.ru/wp-content/plugins/i10cross/style.css?ver=4.8.3" type="text/css" media="all"/> </div> <p></body></div> <p><script type="text/javascript" src="https://connect.facebook.net/ru_RU/all.js#xfbml=1"></script></pre> </div><!-- .entry-content --> </article><!-- #post-## --> <article id="post-199" class="post-199 post type-post status-publish format-standard has-post-thumbnail hentry category-the-science tag-austria tag-created tag-prototype tag-quantum tag-router tag-working"> <header class="entry-header"> <div class="entry-meta"><span class="screen-reader-text">Posted on</span> <a href="http://www.techomg.com/the-science/in-austria-a-working-prototype-of-a-quantum-router-was-created/" rel="bookmark"><time class="entry-date published updated" datetime="2017-12-12T11:27:39+00:00">December 12, 2017</time></a></div><!-- .entry-meta --><h2 class="entry-title"><a href="http://www.techomg.com/the-science/in-austria-a-working-prototype-of-a-quantum-router-was-created/" rel="bookmark">In Austria, a working prototype of a quantum router was created</a></h2> </header><!-- .entry-header --> <div class="post-thumbnail"> <a href="http://www.techomg.com/the-science/in-austria-a-working-prototype-of-a-quantum-router-was-created/"> <img width="750" height="532" src="http://www.techomg.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/B1CF29C5-A02D-4564-B57A-CD279E9EE7EC.@750.jpeg" class="attachment-twentyseventeen-featured-image size-twentyseventeen-featured-image wp-post-image" alt="" srcset="http://www.techomg.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/B1CF29C5-A02D-4564-B57A-CD279E9EE7EC.@750.jpeg 750w, http://www.techomg.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/B1CF29C5-A02D-4564-B57A-CD279E9EE7EC.@750-300x213.jpeg 300w" sizes="(max-width: 767px) 89vw, (max-width: 1000px) 54vw, (max-width: 1071px) 543px, 580px" /> </a> </div><!-- .post-thumbnail --> <div class="entry-content"> <div><head><meta charset="UTF-8"/><meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1"/><title> In Austria they created a working prototype of a quantum router – high-tech and advanced news on Hi-News.ru

As the editorial staff of Science Alert writes, a group of specialists from the University of Vienna was able to develop the first ever quantum router and even conducted the first tests of the new device. This is the first device that can not only accept intricate photons, but also transmit them. In addition, the circuit used in the router can become the basis for creating a quantum Internet.

Quantum coupling systems are known to work thanks to the properties of quantum entanglement, which provides an incredible level of security of the transmitted data. But at the moment, data can only be forwarded from one user to another. Redirect the flow of information through standard fiber networks is not possible, as they absorb light and thereby destroy entanglement. However, a group of researchers led by Ralph Ridinger managed to create a device that helped overcome these limitations.

Scientists used a frequency of 5.1 GHz, creating 500 silicon resonators, whose vibration frequency allows you to store quantum information. All 500 silicon resonators were tested for the presence of a suitable pair. Only 5 pairs were used, which were placed in the refrigerator, which cooled the resonators to absolute zero. Then they were connected to each other by an optical cable 20 cm long. According to the author and development manager, Mr. Ridinger,

"Similar nanorouteers are capable of supporting the entangled state of photons, unlike conventional communication networks. We do not see any restrictions that prevent us from increasing it from 20 centimeters to several kilometers and even more. The presented system is scaled to a larger number of devices and can be integrated into a real quantum network. The combination of our results with optical networks capable of transferring quantum information can create a basis for the future of the quantum Internet. "

A working prototype of a quantum router was created in Austria

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Scientists from MIT created a tattoo from living cells

Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) invented a temporary "tattoo" consisting of genetically programmed living cells. Their prototype is similar to a transparent sticker with a pattern resembling a tree. The figure itself is divided into several sections containing a live fluorescent bacterium that can interact with certain chemical compounds. When the skin under the label is exposed to these compounds, the corresponding tattoo site lights up.

The researchers have been studying for a long time to create and stimulate reactive materials that could be turned into clever materials for use in various types of electronics. For decades. For example, materials that react to heat could be used to create self-assembling or moving robots, and materials reacting to certain chemicals are used to create various chemical sensors.

With the development of 3D printing technologies, new ways of production have emerged, not requiring high costs. This method has become a common practice for creating experimental prototypes in the laboratory. The technology has found its application in the production of stimulant-reacting materials. However, a team of engineers led by Professor Xuan He Qiao from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology decided to test whether the 3D printing method can be applied using easily obtained and programmable living cells.

Previous studies have shown that at least mammalian cells are not suitable for this. They can not survive in the harsh conditions of 3D printing processes, for example, under strong pressure during material extrusion or during ultraviolet irradiation used to bond the structure, which is often a practice for hardening printed material.

"It turned out that all these cells die during the printing process. The matter is that mammalian cells are essentially lipid bilayer balls. In general, they are too weak and easily destroyed, "says co-author Hyyon Wu Yuk.

Bacterial cells, in turn, have a strong protective shell and are much more enduring. In addition, these cells are better compatible with most hydrogels – materials that have water and polymers and are used for a variety of laboratory and practical medical purposes.

Using bacterial cells genetically programmed for a fluorescent response in response to the effects of various chemicals, the team from MIT developed an ink consisting of a hydrogel, cells and a set of nutrients that support the life of these cells. The ink has a dense structure and can be printed at a sufficiently high resolution of 30 micrometers (0.03 millimeters). Engineers printed a test pattern on the elastomer sheet, and then glued it to the skin on which chemicals had been previously applied.

During a few hours of contact, the bacteria with the chemical stimulator of the part of the printed tattoo pattern were highlighted. In addition, scientists have also created bacterial cells that can communicate with each other and illuminate when receiving certain signals from other cells. Researchers tested them in a three-dimensional structure, overlapping two layers printed with hydrogel threads. Bacteria only lighted when they contacted each other and received communication signals.

"This is a very distant future, but in the end we want to find the possibility of printing live computing platforms that can be used in portable electronics," commented Yuk.

As for the nearest time, the team of researchers is looking for the possibility of using the technology developed by them in the production of chemical sensors and directional drug delivery systems, which may be programmed to release drug of the same or glucose into the body at the right time.

A home solar installation for the production of water from the air is presented

Presented home solar plant for water production from air – high-tech and advanced news on Hi-News.ru

Despite the fact that at the moment the issue of depletion of drinking water supplies does not rise too often, nevertheless fresh water is gradually coming to an end, therefore many companies are already engaged in creating solutions for "alternative" water extraction. One of these firms is the American company ZeroMassWater, which introduced a domestic system for obtaining water directly from the air.

The system is based solar hydro-panels, which are almost indistinguishable from the usual already solar batteries, cavity. Solar hydro-panels with the help of fans exhaust the atmospheric air and drive it through a special material inside which draws moisture out of the air. After that, the received water enters the reservoir located under the hydropanels, where it is purified to a state close to distilled water. After that water is enriched with trace elements, and it becomes suitable for consumption. In addition, there is a standard solar cell on the hydropanel, which provides the necessary energy for all internal elements. One installation from ZeroMassWater produces up to 5 liters of water per day.

However, if you are thinking of buying such an installation, it will result in a tidy sum. One set from ZeroMassWater costs $ 2,000, and the installation will have to spend another $ 500. The first installations are already being tested in Lebanon, Ecuador, Jordan, the Philippines, Mexico, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom and the United States. In January 2018, the developers plan to demonstrate the device to the public within the framework of the CES 2018, which will be held in Las Vegas.

A home solar plant for the production of water from air

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A synthetic analog of the cellular receptor

The synthetic analogue of the cellular receptor is created – science news on Hi-News.ru

It is known that all metabolic processes in our body occur at the cellular level. Special structures (receptors) on the surface of cells and cellular elements regulate the permeability of membranes for various substances, trigger the processes of synthesis and decomposition of substances and have many more functions. But with the "breakdown" of the receptor apparatus, various menacing diseases often develop. And recently a group of scientists from the Kazan Federal University (KFU) managed to synthesize a synthetic analogue of the cell's biological receptor.

The research was funded with the support of the Russian Science Foundation, and the work was published in the journal Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry. As one of the authors of the research, Professor Ivan Stoykov, said

"The development of research in the field of anion-receptor biomimetics is aimed at creating synthetic analogs of natural compounds. This is in many respects necessary for a deeper understanding of a number of biological processes. We have obtained new efficient and selective, synthetic receptors of anions based on thiacalixarenes. "

It is worth explaining what are the thiacalixarenes. These are organic compounds, the molecules of which have the shape of a bowl. Its central part consists of several hydrocarbon rings interconnected by sulfur atoms. The upper layer of the bowl consists of short chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms, and the lower layer consists of oxygen-containing hydroxyl groups (that is, hydrogen and oxygen atoms are connected together). To the hydroxyl groups, various molecules can be attached by means of a number of chemical reactions. And, depending on the "environment", only some molecules will be selectively attached, while others will not interact with the synthetic receptor in any way. But this is not all: in the course of the experiments it was possible to find out that the synthetic receptors, depending on the shape of the bowl, have different selectivities for certain types of ions.

"Synthesized compounds can find practical application in the development of new materials and for diagnostic purposes. The variety of thiacalixarenes, which are synthetically available and non-toxic, makes them promising. In the future it is planned to obtain structures with different spatial arrangement of functional groups. Materials with receptor functions for drug delivery and dispensing systems and the creation of new biological sensors will also be obtained. "

A synthetic analogue of the cellular receptor

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The first semisynthetic bacterium with artificial DNA was created

The whole biological life on planet Earth is based on four nucleic (nitrogenous) bases of DNA: A, T, C and G (adenine, cytosine, thymine and guanine). But what happens if a person manages to create new artificial nucleic bases and sew them into the DNA of the body? Researchers from the Research Institute Scripps managed to crank just such a trick. The scientists created two completely new nucleic bases and created the first semisynthetic bacterium on the basis of this "unnatural" DNA.

For several years, researchers from Scripps have been working to create a stable living organism with artificial DNA base pairs. The artificial nitrogen bases created by them were given uncomplicated names "X" and "Y", so artificial DNA can now include six building elements: A, T, C, G, X and Y. Scientists have integrated new elements into the DNA of E. coli bacteria (Escherichia coli), thereby creating for the first time a strain of semisynthetic organisms. In the course of the experiments, the researchers came to the conclusion that the semisynthetic bacteria stabilized by them are not only able to grow and divide, but also transmit the synthetic nucleobases "X" and "Y" to new generations in a completely natural way.

The next stage of the research was to get the bacteria to generate completely new molecules using the nucleic bases they had found. All organisms produce proteins from amino acid strands, using the basic four letters of the "alphabet of DNA." The life that we know is based on 20 standard amino acids. But adding only two new letters to the "alphabet", the scientists obtained an organism capable of generating up to 152 entirely new amino acids. All this means only one thing: semisynthetic bacteria are able to create new molecules that could hypothetically become the basis for, for example, new drugs, etc.

To illustrate this peculiarity of semisynthetic organisms visually, scientists forced bacteria to produce a special fluorescent protein, glowing in the dark (you can see it in the photo a little higher). This protein was the first artificial molecule ever created by a semisynthetic organism. It is very difficult to assess the potential of this scientific breakthrough. For today, scientists are still experimenting with changing the expression of existing genes with the help of special mechanisms of gene editing. Now, researchers will be able to get their hands on a much more impressive mechanism for creating completely new forms of life and new molecules. The results of the study can be found in the journal Nature .

Scientists added two new letters to the genetic code

As you know, in order to encode a huge amount of information in the genetic code, only 4 nucleic acids are used: adenine, guanine, thymine and cytosine. In the genetic code, they are denoted by corresponding letters – A, G, T and C. Thus, we can say that the "genetic alphabet" consists of 4 letters, and until recently it was thought that it can not be changed, but the group of scientists from the Scripps Institute for the first time managed to complete it with two new letters and at the same time leave it fully functioning.

In all living organisms, the above-described nucleic acids are joined together not by any means but by the principle of complementarity. That is, they seem to "look" at each other, and opposite A should always be T, and opposite G – C, and nothing else. But it's still half the battle. These letters should "add up to words", which are called triplets – special combinations, thanks to which all the main points like reading information, encoding proteins, and so on occur. A few years ago, Science magazine published an article describing the experience in which transport RNAs brought to DNA a new amino acid that was recognized and embedded in the code. However, this acid was only one, did not have a pair and did not perform a new function.

In a new study, researchers from Synthorx used two new nitrogenous bases (designated X and Y). They are opposite each other in the double-stranded DNA molecule, just like the standard 4 bases, but unlike them, "new letters" are connected not by hydrogen bonds, but by hydrophobic ones. Moreover, having built two new bases in bacterial DNA, the latter were able to reproduce them, but these bacteria initially divided more slowly than usual and sometimes replaced the new DNA with "traditional" DNA. Now bacteria have been eliminated, which reproduce new DNA without problems. It remains only to come up with these letters for new triplets.

"If you count how many triple combinations you can get with four letters on your hands, we get 64 combinations, adding only two letters, we expand the number of possible genetic words to 216, and as a result, it will be possible to encode more 172 amino acids, which opens up a vast space for bioengineering. "